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2018考研英语二真题及答案(文字版)

发布时间:2018-07-31 13:46:09

 Section I Use of English   Directions:   Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)   why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful?Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty,according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people wiill 2 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3.   In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin School of Business tested students' willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist?Half of the pens would 6 an electric shock when clicked.   Twenty-seven students were told which pens were electrified;another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified 7 left alone in the room, the students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew what would 8 .Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli, 9 the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.   The drive to 10 is deeply rooted in humans,much the same as the basic drives for 11 or shelter,says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct-it can 12 new scientific advances, for instance-but sometimes such 13 can backfire.The insight that curiosity can drive you to do 14 things is a profound one.Unhealthy curiosity is possible to 15 ,however. In a final experiment,participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image.These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one's curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity."Hsee says.In other words,don't read online comments.   1. A.resolveB.protectC.discussD.ignore   2.A.refuseB.waitC.seekD.regret   3.A.riseB.lastC.misleadD.hurt   4.A.alertB.tieC.exposeD.treat   5.A.messageB.trialC.reviewD.concept   6.A.removeB.weakenC.deliverD.interrupt   7. A.UnlessB.IfC.ThoughD.When   8. A.happenB.continueC.disappearD.change   9. A.rather thanB.such asC.regardless ofD.owing to   10. A.disagreeB. forgiveC.forgetD.discover   11. A.payB.marriageC.foodD.schooling   12.A.begin withB.rest onC.learn fromD.lead to   13.A. withdrawalB. inquiryC .persistenceD.diligence   14.A.self-destiuctiveB.self-reliantC. self-evidentD.self-deceptive   15.A.resistB.defineC.replaceD.trace   16.A.predictB.overlookC.designD.conceal   17. A.rememberB.chooseC.promiseD.pretend   18. A.reliefB.planC.outcomeD.duty   19.A. whetherB.whyC.whereD.how   20. A.limitationsB.investmentsC.strategiesD.consequences   Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension   Part A   Directions:   Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)   Text 1   It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.   Mr.Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain?   As Koziatek knows,there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.   But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority.Schools in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype..that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,”he says.   On one hand,that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution.Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was.The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated.More education is the new principle.We want more for our kids,and rigitfully so.   But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all -and the subtle devaluing of anything less-misses an important point:That’s not the only thing the American economy neds.Yes,a bachelor’s degree opens more doors.But even now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs,such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.   In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head,frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is staring us in the face.There is a gap in working-class jobs,but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them.Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.   Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call.When education becomes one-size-fits-all,it risks overlooking a nation’s diversiy of gifts.   21.A brokan bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of______.   A.mechanical memorization   B.academic training   C.practical ability   D.pioneering spirit   22.There existsthe prejudice that vocational education is for kids who______.   A.are financially disadvantaged   B.are not academically successful   C.have a stereotyped mind   D.have no career motivation   23.We can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates______.   A.are entitled to more “ducational privileges   B.are reluctant to work in manufacturing   C.used to have more job opportunities   D.used to have big financial concerns   24.The headlong push into bacheloi’s degrees for all_____.   A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs   B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs   C.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce   D.indicates the overvaluing of higher education   25.The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as_____.   A.supportive   B.disappointed   C.tolerant   D.cautious   21. 答案 C practical ability   这是一道细节题,根据题干关键词可定位至第二段最后一句话,意思是”什么时候这种观点变得可接受了呢?学生应该能够说出美国第十三任总统的名字,但是却完全对坏了的自行车链束手无策”。从作者使用问句的形式就可判断出作者并不接受这种观点,即学生只学会书本上的知识而不具备实际能力。再结合上一句话即本段第二句话,Mr Koziatek是New Hampshire高中的一名老师,在这所学校,学习不只是书本上的知识,或者是为了考试,也不是为了机械化的记忆,而是为了实际的技能。能看出,作者认为学生们缺少的是实际技能,所以答案是C practical ability.   22. 答案 B are not academically successful   这是一道具体细节题,根据题干关键词职业教育对孩子存在的偏见可定位至第四段最后一句,意思是“在很多职业化教育的学校中,有这样一种老套的思想,那就是,职业教育是针对那些在学术上不能成功的那些孩子的。”根据这句话可确定答案就是B are not academically successful 。其他选项均不符合文意。   23.答案C used to have more job opportunities   这是一道细节推断题,根据题干第五段和high school graduates 回到原文定位致第五段第三句,说到美国经济曾经提供给高中毕业生的那种the job security已经在很大程度上evaporated也就是消失了,那说明过去的时候高中毕业生是有职业安全感的,故选C,其他选项都不在定位处,可以排除。   24.答案D indicate the overvaluing of higher education   这是一道事实细节题,根据题干内容“the headlong push”找到出处是第六段开头But后,发现后面还有一个and...和其并列,所以主要关注对这两部分的评价,后面有明显的标点:冒号出现,冒号后说that is not the only thing the American economy needs. 可以看出这句话对前面的否定,选项中只有D选项动词overvalue是负面词,而且提到主题词education。故选D。这道题最适合用感情色彩来排除与D相反的其他三个选项。   25.答案A supportive   这是一道态度题,放在最末的态度题更倾向于到最后一段找答案。通过定位词Koziatek’s school 看到最后一段也确实提到了,说它是一个wake-up call。也就是在唤醒人们教育不应该是统一的形式,这样会overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts,也就是忽视人才的差异性。所以可以看出作者是支持的态度。   Text2   While fossil fuels- coal,oil,gas- still generate roughly 85 percent of the world's energy supply,it'sclearer than ever that the future belongs to renewablesources such as wind and solar.The move to renewables is picking up momentumaround the world: They now account for more than half ofnew power sourcesgoing on line.   Some growth stems from a commitment bygovernments and farsighted Businssesto fundcleanerenergy sources.But increasinglythestoryisabout theplummeting prices of renewables,especially wind and solar.The cost of solarpanels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close taone-third in the past eight years.   In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source.In Scotland,for example, wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes. While the rest of the world takes the lead, notably China and Europe, the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March,for the first time,wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US,reported the US Energy Information Administration.   President Trump has underlined fossil fuels - especially coal - as the path to economic growth. In a recent speech in Iowa, he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source, But that message did not play well with many in Iowa,where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state's electricity generation - and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.   The question “what happens when the wind doesn't blow or the sun doesn'tshine?" has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage apacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.   The advance is driven in par by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now. this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.   While there's a long way to go,the trend lines for renewables are spiking. The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up perhaps: just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change.What Washington does-or doesn't do- to promote alternative energy may mean less and less a time of a global shift in thought.   26.The word "plummeting"(Line 3,Para.2)is closest in meaning to ______   A.stabilizing   B.changing   C.falling   D.rising   27. According to Paragraph 3,the use of renewable energy in America ______   A. is progressing notably   B. is as extensive as in Europe   C. faces many challenges   D. has proved to be impractical 

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